Benguet is a plateau, elevated and characterized by steep slopes, deep ravines and waterways draining into the China Sea. Its slopes are estimated at 25 - 85% steep. Its rugged topography, geologic composition and extreme rainfall make the area susceptible to soil erosion, making agricultural production a problem. Changes in climatic conditions can only worsen this situation. The restoration or maintenance of the desired productive capacity of the farmland should be underscored.
Ifugao, home of the Rice Terraces, lies at the foot of the Cordillera Mountain Ranges. It is characterized by complex geological features -- notably surrounded by mountains and low-lying hills with some very small alluvial land found along the Magat River, and rolling hills in the municipality of Afonso Lista. Terrain is usually rough and rugged with V-shaped gullies, creeks, streams and U-shaped rivers. Changes in climatic conditions further aggravate problems in the agricultural production of the area.